The biosynthesis of steroids and triterpenoids

Catechins released into the ground by some plants may hinder the growth of their neighbors, a form of allelopathy . [60] Centaurea maculosa , the spotted knapweed often studied for this behavior, releases catechin isomers into the ground through its roots, potentially having effects as an antibiotic or herbicide . One hypothesis is that it causes a reactive oxygen species wave through the target plant's root to kill root cells by apoptosis . [61] Most plants in the European ecosystem have defenses against catechin, but few plants are protected against it in the North American ecosystem where Centaurea maculosa is an invasive, uncontrolled weed. [60]

The conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-limiting step of cholesterol biosynthesis and is under strict regulatory control (see Figure 1 ). HMGR is the target of compounds that are effective in lowering serum cholesterol levels. Human HMG-CoA reductase consists of a single polypeptide chain of 888 amino acids. The amino-terminal residues are membrane bound and reside in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, while the catalytic site of the protein resides in its cytoplasmic, soluble carboxy-terminal portion. A linker region connects the two portions of the protein.

The biosynthesis of steroids and triterpenoids

the biosynthesis of steroids and triterpenoids

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